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Today's Birthdays


1984: Emil Coleman, orchestra leader, Arthur Murray Party
1979: Soni Meduna, born in Omaha, Nebraska, gymnast alternate for 1996 Olympics
1978: Mia Maestro, born in Buenos Aires, Argentina, actress, known for playing Nadia Santos in 'Alias' television series
1976: Darnell Autry, running back for the Chicago Bears
1975: Brandon Mitchell, defensive end for the New England Patriots
1975: Anna Valle, Miss Universe-Italy 1996
1975: Anthony Parker, NBA guard for the Philadelphia 76ers
1973: Arne van de Berg, soccer player, Willem II
1973: Jahine Arnold, wide receiver for the Pittsburgh Steelers
1972: Brian McBride, American Athlete
1972: Millard Coleman, CFL receiver, Montreal Alouettes
1972: Robin Tunney, American Actress
1972: Anna Van der Kamp, Abbotsford BC, rower 1996 Olympics
1972: Andre Strode, CFL defensive back for the BC Lions
1970: Quincy Dushawn Watts, born in Detroit, Michigan, 400m runner
1970: Claire Mitchell-Taverner, Australian field hockey midfielder 1996 Olympics
1970: Chris Gray, NFL guard, Miami Dolphins, Chicago Bears
1970: Scott Brumfield, guard for the Cincinnati Bengals
1970: Leonard Humphries, CFL cornerback for the BC Lions
1968: Jud Buechler, NBA guard and forward, Chicago Bulls
1967: Eric Schweig, born in Inuvik, Canada, actor, Dead Man's Walk
1967: Mia Sara, American Actress
1966: Joichi Ito, Japanese Businessman
1966: Samuel West, born in England, actor, theater director, appeared in 'Howards End', 'Jane Eyre', Van Helsing', 'Notting Hill' , 'Complicity' films, among others
1965: Karen Davies, Wrexham N Wales, golfer, 1991 PING-Cellular One-6th
1965: Sadie Frost, English Actress
1964: Boris Johnson, New York City, New York, politician, journalist, Mayor of London, formerly served as a Member of Parliament for Henley-on-Thames
1964: David Freedman, cricketer, NSW left-arm Chinese bowler since 1990
1962: Paula Abdul, born in Van Nuys, California, singer and choreographer, Straight Up
1962: Phillip Hatchett, born in Russellville, Kentucky, Canadian Tour golfer, 1991 Quebec
1960: Johnny Lee Gray, Jr., born in Los Angeles, California, 800m runner, Olympics-7th-1996
1960: Simon Wright, heavy metal drummer, AC/DC
1960: Patti Rizzo, born in Hollywood, Florida, golfer, Mexican Amateur champion 1980
1959: Mark DeBarge, born in Grand Rapids, Michigan, rock vocalist, DeBarge-Who's Johnny
1957: David Gleeson, Norfolk England, U.S., rower 1996 Olympics
1957: Anna Lindh, born in Enskede, Sweden, politician, Social Democrat party, served as Swedish Minister of Foreign Affairs
1954: Jim Cooper, born in Nashville, Tennessee, Representative-D-Tennessee 1983 - 1995, 2003 -
1953: Larry Dunn, Dunhill, U.S. keyboardist, Earth Wind and Fire
1952: Robert Ainsworth, born in Coventry, England, Robert William Ainsworth, politician, Labor Party, 2009, assumed roles of Secretary of State for Defense, since 1992, serves as a Member of Parliament for Coventry North East
1951: Daria Nicolodi, Florence Italy, actress, Terror, Shock
1951: Ann Wilson, born in San Diego, California, rock vocalist, Heart-What About Love
1950: Constance Forslund, born in San Diego, California, actress, Shining Season
1949: [Mary] Kathleen Turner, born in Springfield, Missouri, actress, Romancing The Stone
1948: Phylicia Rashad, American Actress
1947: Jim Walsh, Irish Politician
1947: Salman Rushdie, Pak, novelist, Midnight's Children, Satanic Verses
1947: James T. Walsh, born in Syracuse, New York, Representative-R-New York 1989 - 2009
1947: Phylicia Ayers-Allen Rashad, Houston, actress, Clair-Bill Cosby
1945: Tim Hovey, born in Los Angeles, California, actor, Queen Bee, Toy Tiger, Man Afraid
1945: Aung San Suu Kyi, Burmese politician, Nobel
1945: Tobias Wolff, U.S. writer, This Boy's Life
1945: Daw Aung San Suu Kyi, Activist
1942: Neil Chalmers, director, National History Museum, London
1942: Bob Kasten, born in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, Senator-R-Wisconsin 1981 - 1993
1942: Jos Brink, Dutch TV host, Op Zoek
1942: Elaine "Spanky" McFarlane, rocker, Spanky and Our Gang-Lazy Day
1941: Marlene Warfield, born in Queens, New York, actress, Victoria-Maude
1941: Vaclav Klaus, Czechoslovakian Statesman
1940: Shirley "Cha Cha" Muldowney, drag racer, 1st woman Top Fuel champ
1939: Peter Duffell, Brits Lieutenant-General/minister of Defense
1938: John Sheil, Northern Irish High Court judge
1938: Charles Gwathmey, architect, 5 Architects
1936: Shirley Goodman, U.S. R&B singers, Shirley and Lee-Feels so Good
1935: Tommy Devito, born in Montclair, New Jersey, rock vocalist, Four Seasons-Sherry
1934: Gena Rowlands, born in Cambria, Wisconsin, actress, Gloria, Tempest, Brinks Job
1934: Terence Clark, British diplomat
1934: Hammond Furlonge, cricketer, WI batsman in 3 Tests 1955-56
1933: Thelma Barlow, English actress, Mavis-Coronation Street
1933: Viktor Ivanovich Patsayev, U.S.S.R., cosmonaut, Soyuz 11
1932: Marisa Pavan, born in Cagliari, Italy, actress, Solomon and Sheba, Rose Tattoo
1932: Pier Angeli, born in Italy, Sodom and Gomorrah, Vintage, Battle of the Bulge
1931: "Against Iain" duke of Atholl, English large landowner
1930: Bryan Kneale, British sculptor
1928: Raymond Powell, British MP
1928: Nancy Marchand, born in Buffalo, New York, actress, Beacon Hill, Margaret-Lou Grant
1928: Barry Took, born in Muswell Hill, North London, England, comedian, writer, television presenter on BBC program Points of View and BBC Radio 4 program The News Quiz, wrote comedy with Mary Feldman
1925: Charlie Drake, British comic, Plank, Rhubarb Rhubarb, Splish Splash
1925: Alfred B Nzo, South African Secretary-General ANC, 1969-
1924: Wassil Bykau, writer
1924: Leo Nomellini, NFL defensive tackle for the San Francisco 49ers
1922: Aage Neals Bohr, born in Denmark, physicist/study atomic nucleus, Nobel 1975
1921: Allan Davis, mayor-London
1921: Howell Heflin, born in Poulan, Georgia, Senator-D-Alabama 1979 - 1997
1921: Howell Heflin, American Politician
1921: Rosalyn Yalow, famed award winning medical physicist
1921: Herman Berserik, Dutch painter/graphic artist
1919: Louis Jourdan, Marseilles France, actor, Gigi, Can-Can, Madame Bovary
1919: Pauline Kael, movie critic, New York Times, For Keeps
1918: Evelle Jansen Younger, prosecutor, Charles Manson, Sirhan Sirhan
1917: Joshua Nkomo, Zimbabwan minister, ZAPUA
1916: Pat Buttram, actor, Mr Haney-Green Acres
1914: Lester Flatt, Earl Scrugg's partner, Beverly Hillbillies theme
1914: Harry Lauter, born in White Plains, New York, actor, Waterfront
1914: Alan Cranston, born in Palo Alto, California, Senator-D-California, 1969 - 1993
1914: Morgan Morgan-Giles, Brits Lt admiral/MP
1912: Martin Gabel, born in Philadelphia, TV host, With this Ring
1912: Jerry Jerome, born in Brooklyn, New York, saxophonist, Words and Music
1910: Frederick Harry Baines, painter
1910: Abe Fortas, American Judge
1909: Osamu Dazai, born in Japan, novelist, Tsugaru, No Longer Human
1909: Edwin Gerschefski, composer
1908: Quentin N. Burdick, born in Munich, North Dakota, Senator-D-North Dakota 1960 - 1992
1908: Mildred Natwick, born in Baltimore, Maryland, actress, She Wore a Yellow Ribbon
1905: Taneli Kuusisto, composer
1905: George Voskovec, Czechoslovakia, actor, Fred-Nero Wolfe, Peter-Skag
1904: Balis Dvarionas, composer
1903: Walter Hammond, cricketer, one of the greatest of English batsman
1903: Lou Gehrig, American Athlete, 1st baseman, New York Yankees
1902: Guy Lombardo, orchestra leader, Auld Lang Syne
1901: Edward Lambert, British diplomat
1900: Laura Hobson, New York City, TV writer/panelist, I've Got a Secret
1899: George Calinescu, Romania, literature, Enigma Otilei
1898: Paul Muller-Zurich, composer
1897: Moe Howard, born in Brooklyn, New York, comedian, 3 Stooges
1896: Wallis Simpson, British Royalty, Duchess of Windsor, divorcee
1893: Adriaan F. Dussenbroek, Dutch family dr/co-founder, Union National Arubano
1890: Barbara Everest, born in London, England, actress, Fatal Witness, Inquest
1889: Enrico Celio, president, born in Switzerland
1886: Robert Herberigs, Flemish composer/writer, Hiawatha's Song
1886: Duchess of Windsor, divorcee
1885: Stevan Hristic, composer
1880: Johann Sigurjonsson, Icelandic writer, Dr. Rung
1878: James M. Kilroe, priest of St. Mary Star of the Sea, in the Bronx
1877: Charles Coburn, Macon, Georgia, actor, Acad-1943, Gentlemen Prefer Blondes
1868: Heinrich Schenker, A Niloff, Austrian musicologist, Urlinie
1867: Frank Iredale, cricketer, Australian batsman 1894-99
1867: Eduard Jacobs, Dutch cabaret artist
1865: Alfred Hugenberg, German RC president-director of Krupp/media magnate
1865: May Whitty, born in Liverpool, England, actress, Mrs Minerva, Suspicion
1861: Jose Protasio Rizal, Philippine optician/author/nationalist
1861: Douglas Haig, British Field Marshal, Sudan, WW I
1859: Elbert Hubbard, American Writer
1858: Sam Walter Foss, American Poet
1858: Dirk Fock, governor-general of Netherlands Indies, 1921-26
1858: Charles Haddon George Alexander, George Samson, British actor
1856: Elbert Hubbard, U.S., editor/publisher/author, Message to Garcia
1854: Alfredo Catalani, composer
1843: Charles Edouard Lefebvre, composer
1842: Carl Johann Adam Zeller, composer
1834: Charles Spurgeon, British Clergyman
1834: Edgar Degas, French painter, ballerina
1815: John William Glover, composer
1814: Johannes H. Weissenbruch, landscape painter
1811: Henry Prince, Brigadier General Union volunteers
1810: Ferdinand David, violist/compser, Hohe Schule des Violinspiels
1792: Gustav Schwab, writer
1790: John Gibson, British sculptor
1783: Thomas Sully, U.S. portrait painter, Queen Victoria
1782: Hugues F R de Lamennais, French priest/writer, L'avenir
1766: Edmund Weber, composer
1764: Jose Gervasio Artigas, general/father of Uruguay
1764: John Barrow, England, founded Royal Geographical Society
1749: Jean-Marie Collot d'Herbois, France, chairman, National Convention
1741: Reinier Vinkeles, Dutch engraver/art collector
1717: Johann Wenzel Anton Stamitz, composer
1708: Johann Gottlieb Janitsch, composer
1633: Philippus van Limborch, remonstrants theologist/vicar
1623: Blaise Pascal, mathematician/physicist/religious writer, Pascal
1613: Christian de Placker, composer
1608: Thomas Fuller, England, literary, History of the Holy War
1595: Wladyslaw IV Vasa, king of Poland, 1632-48
1566: King James I, Royalty
1566: James I Stuart, king of Scotland, James VI, England, 1567/1603-25

 

Today in History


2011: For the third straight week, hundreds of Vietnamese citizens protest outside China's embassy in Hanoi against disputed areas in the South China Sea
2011: The 2011 Paris Air Show features the international debut of the new Boeing 747-8
2010: Rival clashes between nomadic groups in the Darfur region of Sudan kills at least 48 people
2000: NBA Finals, Los Angeles Lakers beat Indiana Pacers 4 games to 2
1999: Stanley Cup Finals, Dallas Stars beat Buffalo Sabres 4 games to 2
1997: "Forever Tango!," opens at Walter Kerr Theater New York City
1995: New York Yankees announce agreement with Darryl Strawberry
1994: 94th U.S. Golf Open: Ernie Els shoots a 279 at Oakmont CC in Oakmont Pa
1994: "Sally Marrand Her Escorts" closes at Helen Hayes New York City after 50 performances
1994: Ernesto Samper elected president of Colombia
1994: Tigers tie record of hitting home runs in 25th consecutive games
1994: "She Loves Me" closes at Atkinson Theater New York City after 294 performances
1994: "Twilight - Los Angeles 1992" closes at Cort New York City after 72 performances
1994: Lisa Kiggens wins LPGA Rochester International Golf Tournament
1993: Boon completes 15th Test cricket century, 164* vs. England at Lord's
1993: Mandy Smith (Bill Wyman's ex-wife) weds Pat van den Hauwe
1992: New York Yankees 1st game in Baltimore Oriole's Camden Yards
1992: Inkhata-blood bath in Boipatong South Africa
1992: Guardian Angel Curtis Sliwa is shot twice in New York City
1992: "Batman Returns" opens
1992: Evander Holyfield beats Larry Holmes in 12 for heavywgt boxing title
1991: Colombian drug baron Pablo Escobar surrenders to police
1991: New York Yankee Steve Howe records his 1st major league save since 1987
1991: 2 of Mia Farrow's daughters arrested for shoplifting lingerie
1990: Gary Carter catches his 1,862nd career game breaks Al Lopez's NL mark
1989: Mets Dwight Gooden wins his 100th game (100-37)
1988: Danny Spitz, heavy metal artist (Anthrax), weds Valerie
1988: World's Largest Sausage completed at 13 miles long
1988: Shirley Furlong wins LPGA Lady Keystone Golf Open
1988: 88th U.S. Golf Open: Curtis Strange shoots a 278 at Country Club Mass
1988: 32 divers finish cycling underwater on a standard tricycle,to complete 116.66 mi in 75 hours 20 minutes
1988: Namphy takes control of Haitian government
1987: Geffen records sign their 1st artist, Donna Summer
1987: ETA bomb attack in Barcelona, 15 killed
1987: Supreme Court rules school teaching evolution need not teach creation
1987: Ben and Jerry Ice Cream and Grateful Dead's Jerry Garcia announce new Ice Cream flavor, Cherry Garcia
1986: Argentina beats West Germany 3-2 in soccer's 13th World Cup
1985: Reggie Jackson hits his 513th home run to move into 10th place
1984: 1st live TV appearance by Chief Justice Warren Burger, Nightline
1984: "Weird Al" Yankovic gives free live performance at Del Mar Fair
1983: Jan Stephenson wins LPGA Lady Keystone Golf Open
1983: "Octopussy" premieres in US
1981: India's APPLE satellite, 1st to be stabilized on 3 axes, launched
1981: European Space Agency's Ariane carries 2 satellites into orbit
1981: Boeing commercial Chinook 2-rotor helicopter is certified
1981: Heaviest known orange (2.5 kg) exhibited, Nelspruit, South Africa
1980: Battle between police and demonstrators in Capetown, 34 killed
1979: Mali's constitution goes into effect
1979: In New York 36,211 show up to witness return of Billy Martin as Yank manager
1978: "Best Little Whorehouse..." opens at 46th St. New York City for 1577 performances
1978: Garfield, created by Jim Davis, 1st appears as a comic strip
1978: Ian Botham takes 8-34 vs. Pakistan, his best Test cricket bowling
1977: 77th U.S. Golf Open: Hubert Green shoots a 278 at Southern Hills Tulsa
1977: Red Sox set 3 game record of 16 home runs, all against Yankees
1977: Judy Rankin wins LPGA Mayflower Golf Classic
1977: Pope Paul VI makes 19th-cen bishop John Neumann 1st U.S. male saint
1977: Indians fire manager Frank Robinson and replace him with Jeff Torborg
1976: King Charles XVI Gustaf of Sweden marries Dutchess Silvia Sommerlath
1976: U.S. Viking 1 goes into Martian orbit after 10-month flight from Earth
1974: Yemen Arab Republic, North Yemen, suspends constitution
1974: Kansas City Royal Steve Busby 2nd no-hitter beats Milwaukee Brewers, 2-0
1973: "Rocky Horror Picture Show," stage production opens in London
1973: Pete Rose and Willie Davis both get career hit # 2,000
1972: 40,000 pilots strike against naval officer
1972: Hurricane Agnes, kills 118 in New York and Florida
1971: Mayor declares state of emergency in Columbus Ga, racial disturbance
1970: Yankees Horace Clarke breaks up a no-hitter in the 9th for the 2nd of 3 times in 28 days
1970: Conservatives win British parliamentary election
1970: A Nikolayev and V Sevastyanov return after 18 days in Soyuz 9
1970: Jim Bouton's controversial "Ball Four" is published
1969: State troopers ordered to Cairo Ill, to quell racial disturbances
1968: 50,000 participate in Solidarity Day March of Poor People's Campaign
1967: Paul McCartney admits on TV that he took LSD
1967: Muhammad Ali is convicted for refusing induction in U.S. Army
1966: Kathy Whitworth wins LPGA Milwaukee Jaycee Golf Open
1965: KYW-AM in Cleveland Ohio returns call letters to Philadelphia
1965: Algerian coup under colonel Houari Boumedienne, President Ben Bella fired
1964: Bob Dylan completes U.K. tour
1964: Cambuur Leeuwarden BVO soccer team forms in Leeuwarden
1964: Civil Rights Act of 1964 passes 73-27
1963: Charter members of Canadian Football Hall of Fame chosen
1963: 2 Russian space missions return to Earth
1963: Valentina Tereshkova 1st woman in space returns to Earth
1963: Greek government of Pipinolis forms
1961: Charlie Finley, changes A's manager Joe Gordon (26-33) for Hank Bauer
1961: U.S. Supreme Court struck down a provision in Md's constitution requiring state office holders to believe in God
1961: New York Yankee Roger Maris hits his 25th of 61 home runs
1961: "Little Egypt (Ying-Yang)" by Coasters peaks at #23
1961: Kuwait declares independence from U.K.
1960: Betsy Rawls wins LPGA Cosmopolitan Golf Open
1960: Juan Marichal debuts as San Francisco Giant pitcher, beats Phillies on 1 hitter
1960: Loretta Lynn records "Honky Tonk Girl"
1956: Jerry Lewis and Dean Martin end partnership after 16 films
1955: Mickey Mantle hits career home run # 100
1955: Phils beat Cubs 1-0 in 15, ties longest shut out in Phillies history
1955: 55th U.S. Golf Open: Jack Fleck shoots a 287 at Olympic CC in SF
1954: Tasmanian Devil, debuts in "Devil May Hare" by Warner Bros
1954: 54th U.S. Golf Open: Ed Furgol shoots a 284 at Baltusrol Golf Club in New Jersey
1954: Betty Jameson wins LPGA Western Golf Open
1953: WTPennsylvania (now WHTM) TV channel 27 in Harrisburg, Pennsylvania (ABC) 1st broadcast
1953: Albert W. Dent, elected president of National Health Council
1953: WCSouth Carolina TV channel 5 in Charleston, South Carolina (CBS) begins broadcasting
1952: "I've Got A Secret" debuts on CBS-TV with Garry Moore as host
1948: U.S.S.R. blocks access road to West Berlin
1948: Panama and Costa Rica recognize Israel
1947: 1st plane (F-80) to exceed 600 mph (1004 kph)-Albert Boyd, Muroc Ca
1946: 1st TV sports spectacular - Joe Louis KOs Billy Conn
1944: French troops free Elba
1944: Japanese troops conquer Changsha China
1944: Heavy air raid on U.S. fleet at Guam "Turkey Shoot"
1944: Battle of Philippines Sea, 300 Japanese aircraft shot down
1943: "Shiek Of Arahy" Spike Jones and City Slickers peaks at #19
1943: NFL's Philadelphia Eagles and Pittsburgh Steelers merge, (dissolves on Dec 5)
1942: Paul Waner, is 7th to get 3,000 hits
1941: U.S. president Roosevelt signs Two Ocean Navy Expansion Act
1941: Romania orders Jews to evacuate Darabani
1941: Cheerios Cereal invents an O-shaped cereal
1940: Goering orders seizure of Dutch horses, car, buses and ships
1940: "Brenda Starr," 1st cartoon strip by a woman, appears in Chicago
1940: German 7th Armour division under General-Major Rommel occupies Cherbourg
1938: "Olympian Flyer" express train crashes in Montana, killing 47
1938: Italy beats Hungary 4-1 in soccer's 3rd World Cup at Paris
1938: Paul Waner (Pirates) homers off Pete Sivess (Phillies) in DH
1938: Reds Johnny Vander Meer extends his string of hitless innings to 21 2/3 before Debs Garms singles for Boston in 4th
1937: Franco-troops conquer Bilbao Basques
1936: Joe McCarthy is named to manage AL All-Stars, rather than high-strung Mickey Cochrane, who is very close to a nervous breakdown
1936: German boxer Max Schmeling World Champion KOs Joe Louis
1936: Dutch Premier Colijn denies relation with German call-girl
1934: Federal Communications Commission (FCC) created
1933: Austrian government-Dollfuss bans nazi-organizations
1932: Hailstones kill 200 in Hunan Province, China PR
1931: 1st photoelectric cell installed commercially West Haven Ct
1926: DeFord Bailey is 1st black to perform on Nashville's Grand Ole Opry
1924: Paavo Nurmi runs world record 1500m (3:52.6)
1923: "Moon Mullins," Comic Strip, debuts
1923: Baldwin-Mellon-agreement concerning Britain entering the war
1922: Paavo Nurmi runs world record 5000m (14:28.2)
1921: Turk and Christian of Palestine sign a friendship treaty against Jews
1917: After WW I King George V ordered members of British royal family to dispense with German titles and surnames, they take the name Windsor
1914: 54th British Golf Open: Harry Vardon shoots a 306 at Prestwick Club
1912: Tennessee University opened as Tennessee A and L State College
1910: 1st airship in service "Germany"
1910: Father's Day celebrated for 1st time (Spokane, Wash)
1894: 28th Belmont: Willie Simms aboard Henry of Navarre wins in 1:56
1893: Lizzie Bordon acquitted
1889: Start of Sherlock Holmes adventure "Man with the Twisted Lip"
1881: Muhammad Ahmad becomes Mahdi of Sudan
1875: Formal opening of U.S. Marine Hospital at Presidio
1868: Major General E R S Canby removes mayor of Columbia SC
1867: 1st Belmont: J Gilpatrick aboard Ruthless wins in 3:05
1865: Union General Granger declares slaves are free in Texas
1865: Siege of Richmond, Virginia
1864: CSS "Alabama" sunk by USS "Kearsarge" off Cherbourg, France
1864: Skirmish at Pine Knob Georgia
1863: Battle at Middleburg Virginia, 100+ casualties
1862: Slavery outlawed in U.S. territories
1861: Anaheim Post Office established
1861: Francis Pierpont is elected provisional governor of West Virginia
1850: Swedish/Norwegian crown prince Charles weds Dutch princess Wilhelmina
1848: Elizabeth Stanton and Lucretia Mott open 1st women's rights convention
1846: 1st baseball game (Cartwright Rules)-NY Nines 23, Knickerbockers 1
1835: New Orleans gives U.S. government Jackson Square to be used as a mint
1829: Sir Robert Peel found London Metropolitan Police (Bobbies)
1825: Gioacchino Rossini's "Il viaggio a Reims," premieres
1778: Washington's troops finally leave Valley Forge
1770: General Church of New Jerusalem established
1754: Albany Congress held by 7 British colonies and Iroquois indians
1669: Polish parliament selects Litouwer Michael Wisniopwiecki as king
1631: Peace of Cherasco: Charles de Gonzaga-Nevers becomes duke of Mantua
1621: Battle at Dragetsani: Turkish army beats Greece
1588: Spanish Armada heavily destroyed in storm at Coruna
1586: English colonists sailed from Roanoke Island, North Carolina
1572: Garrison under Adrian van Swieten occupy Oudewater
1502: Emperor Maximilian I and England sign treaty of Antwerp
1464: French King Louis XI forms postal service
1369: Duke Philip the Stout marries Margaretha van Male
1286: Rabbenu Mir of Rothenbur imprisoned in fortress of Ensisheim
1269: King Louis IX of Frances decrees all Jews must wear a badge of shame
1205: Pope Innocent III fires Adolf I as archbishop of Cologne
987: Louis IV, crowned king of France