...Because someone's gotta tell the story...


Today's Birthdays

1981: Ray J, born in Carson, California, singer, record producer, actor, son of gospel singer William Norwood
1980: Zooey Deschanel, born in Los Angeles, California, American Actress
1978: Tommy S. Parker, producer with 2 Guys and A Dream Films
1978: Irina A. Borisova, Miss Universe-Ukraine 1996
1977: Ali el Kattabi, soccer player, Sparta
1975: Coco Lee, Chinese Musician
1974: Guillermo Mercedes, Dominican/US baseball infielder for the Texas Rangers
1974: Marcus Spriggs, offensive tackle for the Buffalo Bills
1974: Sharon Marie Ferris, New Zealand, yachter 1996 Olympics
1974: Derrick Mason, wide receiver for the Tennessee Oilers
1973: Amanda Elizabeth Spivey, Spartanburg, South Carolina, Miss America-South Carolina 1996
1972: Wendall Gaines, NFL tight end for the Arizona Cardinals
1972: Rohn Meyer, CFL offensive linebacker for the Calgary Stampeders
1971: Tyler Houston, U.S. baseball catcher, Atlanta Braves
1971: Derek Plante, Cloquet, NHL center for the Buffalo Sabres
1971: Peter Winter, Australian decathlete 1996 Olympics
1971: Kid Rock, born in Romeo, Michigan, singer, songwriter, Grammy-Award winner, hits include, 'All Summer Long', 'American Bad Ass', sold over 22 million albums
1970: Candace Murray, Vancouver BC, softball shortstop 1996 Olympics
1970: Darnell Walker, NFL cornerback, Atlanta Falcons, San Francisco 49ers
1970: Jeremy Roenick, born in Boston, Massachusetts, NHL center, Team USA, Blackhawks, Coyotes
1969: Naveen Andrews, born in London, England, actor, appeared on television show, 'Lost' as Sayid Jarrah
1967: William Michael Heinen, Jr., Rayne, Louisiana, PGA golfer, 1994 Shell Houston
1967: Gregory Caccia, Bayshore, New York, team handball right back 1996 Olympics
1966: Rexton Gordon, Jamaican dj/rapper, Shabba Ranks-Extra Naked
1966: Shabba Ranks, born in Sturgetown, St. Ann, Jamaica, born Rexton Rawlston Fernando Gordon, reggae singer, recording artist, sex symbol, popular dancehall DJ, toaster, successful U.S. crossover artist, became first Grammy-Award winning dancehall artist
1966: Anna Ivan, La Jolla Cal, tennis star
1966: Trish Johnson, Bristol England, LPGA golfer, 1993 Las Vegas
1966: Don Myrah, born in Oakland California, cyclist, Olympics-20th-96
1966: Karissa Rushing, Benton Arkansas, Miss Arkansas-America 1991
1964: Jeff Tabaka, U.S. baseball pitcher for the San Diego Padres
1962: Jim Carrey, born in Ontario, Canada, actor, Living Color, Dumb and Dumber, Mask
1961: Maia Chiburdanidze, Kutaisi U.S.S.R., women's world chess champ
1960: John Crawford, Palo Alto California, bass, Berlin-You Take My Breath Away
1960: Chili Davis, born in Kingston, Jamacia, outfielder for the California Angels
1959: Susanna Hoffs, actress/rocker, Bangles-Walk Like an Egyptian
1958: Jez Strode, born in England, born Jeremy Strode, drummer, musician, pop band genre, member of British pop band, Kajagoogoo
1957: Donna Stone, New Jersey, fencer-epee 1996 Olympics
1957: Steve Harvey, American Actor
1956: Mitch Vogel, Alhambra California, actor, Jamie-Bonanza
1956: Paul Young, rock vocalist/keyboardist, Every Time You Go Away
1955: Steve Earle, born in San Antonio, Texas, country singer, Guitar Town
1954: Robert F Kennedy, Jr., attorney, Natural Resources Defense Council
1954: Janet Dykman, Monterey Park California, archer 1996 Olympics
1952: Ryuichi Sakamoto, Japanese, rocker, Academy Award 1988, Yellow Magic Orchestra
1952: Larry Fortensky, former husband of Liz Taylor, 7th
1951: Rolando Thoeni, Italy, slalom 1972 Olympics bronze
1949: Anita Borg, American Scientist
1949: Debbie Watson, La Mirada California, actress, Karen, Tammy
1949: Andy Kaufman, born in New York City, comedian/actor, Latka Gravas-Taxi
1948: Mick Taylor, rock bassist, Rolling Stones-Brown Sugar
1948: Alexander "Alec" Erwin, South African worker's union leader
1947: Todd Susman, born in St. Louis, Missouri, actor, Goodnight Beantown
1947: Jane Elliot, New York City, actress, Baby Boom, General Hospital, Knots Landing
1947: Gail Toushin, LPGA golfer
1947: Ulysses Dove, dancer and choreographer
1945: William Hart, U.S. singer, 4 Gents, Delfonics-I'm Sorry
1943: Daniel Charles Brandenstein, Watertown Wi, ast, STS-8, 51-G, 32, 49
1943: Chris Montez, born in Los Angeles, California, rocker, singer, guitarist, rhythm and blues, Latino rock, recording Let's Dance with Monogram Records was on the Billboard Hot 100 Chart in the U.S.
1942: Muhammad Ali, heavyweight champ boxer, 1964 - 1967 1974 - 1978
1942: Randy Boone, Fayetteville, North Carolina, actor, Cimarron Strip, Virginian
1940: Oswald Mbuyiseni Mtshali, South African poet, Fireflames
1940: Tabare Vazquez, Uruguayan Statesman
1940: H Kipchoge "Kip" Keino, Kenya, 1500m runner, Gold Medal 1968, 1972 Olympics
1939: Toini Gustafson, born in Sweden, 5K/10K cross country skier, Gold Medal 1968 Olympics
1939: Antao D'Souza, cricketer, Pakistani pace bowler in six Tests 1959-62
1939: Maury Povich, TV host, Current Affair, Maury, Mr Connie Chung
1938: Paul Revere, Harvard Nebraska, pianist, Paul Revere and Raiders
1938: John Bellairs, U.S., sci-fi author, Chessmen of Doom
1937: Alain Badiou, born in Rabat, Morocco, influential French philosopher, chair, subscribes to an anti-postmodern form of continental philosophy
1936: Jerry Fogel, born in Rochester, New York, actor, Jerry-Mothers-in-Law, White Shadow
1935: Ruth Ann Minner, American Politician
1935: Jimmy Powell, born in Dallas, Texas, PGA golfer, 1990 Southwestern Bell Classic
1935: Paul O[sborne] Williams, U.S., sci-fi author, Ends of the Circle
1934: Shari Lewis, born in Bronx, New York, ventriloquist/puppeteer, Lamb Chop
1934: Sydney Phillip Hodkinson, composer
1934: Donald Cammell, film director
1933: Sheree North, Dawn Bethel, Louisiana, actress, Mary Tyler Moore Show
1933: Dalida, Cairo, actress/singer, Miss Egypt, The 6th Day
1933: Aga Khan, religious leader, Muslims
1933: Bruno Schroder, British baron/banker/multi-millionaire
1933: Yolande Christina Dalida, Cairo Egypt
1931: L Douglas Wilder, Gov-D-Va
1931: James Earl Jones, Mississippi, actor, Darth Vader, Exorcist II, Soul Man
1931: Frederick Alfred Fox, composer
1930: Bill Benyon, English large landowner/Conservative Lower house leader
1929: Jacques "Jake the Snake" Plante, Quebec, NHL goaltender, #1
1928: Vidal Sassoon, London, hair stylist/CEO, Vidal Sasson
1928: Jean Barraque, French composer
1928: Ken Archer, cricketer, Australian batsman, 5 Tests early 50s
1927: Donald Erb, Youngstown, Ohio, composer
1927: Eartha Kitt, singer and actress, Catwoman-Batman
1927: Michael Herford Wooller, TV/film producer
1926: Clyde Walcott, cricketer, one of the three W's, later ICC chairman
1926: Richard Michael Hills, comedy script writer
1926: Moira Shearer, Dunfermline Scotland, ballerina, Red Shoes
1926: Newton N. Minow, American Lawyer
1925: A H Kardar, cricketer, Pak 1st Test captain, prev played for India
1925: Rock Hudson, born in Winnetka, Illinois, actor, McMillian and Wife
1925: Duane Hanson, U.S. sculptor
1925: Annie Delorie, Dutch opera singer, Scenes and Arias
1924: Jewel Plummer Cobb, educator/president, California State University at Fullerton
1923: Onno Molenkamp, Dutch actor, Lifespan, Broken Mirrors, The Lift
1922: Betty White, Oak Park, actress, Mary Tyler Moore Show, Golden Girls
1922: Luis Echeverria Alvarez, president Mexico
1921: Dehl Berti, born in Pueblo, Colorado, actor, John Taylor-Guns of Paradise
1920: Nora Kaye, New York City, prima ballerina
1920: Joseph George Handy Hendleman, musician
1918: Joseph Walker Barr, banker/politician
1917: Oskar Morawetz, Svetla Czechoslovakia, composer
1917: Ulyses Simpson Kay, composer
1917: Maruthur Gopalan Ramachandran, MGR, Indian film star, politician
1916: Joel Herron, born in Chicago, Illinois, orchestra leader, Jaye P Morgan Show
1914: William Stafford, American Poet
1913: Yuvraj of Patiala, cricketer, scored 24 and 60 in only Test India vs. Eng
1913: Werenfried [Flip] van Straaten, founder, Oostpriesterhulp
1912: Orest Alexandrovich Evlahkov, composer
1911: Hermann Pfrogner, Austria, musicologist, Zerrissene Orpheus
1910: Edith S. Green, born in Trent, South Dakota, Representative-D-Oregon 1955 - 1974
1910: Michael Economides, restaurateur
1908: Akkineni LV Lakshmi Varaprasada Rao Prasad, producer
1907: Henk H Badings, Bandung Indonesia, Dutch opera composer, Orestes
1905: Franz Schmid, Germany, ascended northside of Matterhorn, 1931
1904: Grant Withers, Pueblo CO, actor, Oklahoma, Annie
1904: Patsy Ruth Miller, actress, Quebec, Wide Open, Sap, Twin Beds
1903: Warren Hull, Gasport, New York, actor, Strike it Rich, Who in the World
1902: Geoffrey W. Lloyd, British minister of Brandstoffen/Energy, 1951-55
1901: Vasily Petrovich Shirinsky, composer
1900: Olga Maria Nicolis di Robilant, patron of the arts
1899: Roel [Martinus F] Houwink, Dutch literary, 1 Man Without Character
1899: Robert M. Hutchins, American Educator
1899: Al Capone, born in Brooklyn, New York, gangster, Chicago bootlegging
1899: Robert Maynard Hutchins, U.S., educator/civil libertarian
1899: Nevil Shute [Norway], London, novelist, On the Beach, Town Like Alice
1897: Nils Asther, Malmo Sweden, actor, Bluebeard, Night Monster
1896: Harry Reser, born Piqua, Ohio, orchestra leader, Sammy Kaye Show
1891: Walter Eucken, German economist
1891: Norman "Squab" Read, U.S. aviator who lived to be 101
1891: Marjorie Gateson, born in Brooklyn, New York, actress, One Man's Family
1886: Glenn Luther Martin, aviator, Collier Trophy-1933
1886: Ronald Firbank, London, novelist, Flower Beneath the Foot
1885: Joseph Arendt, Belgian worker's union leader
1885: E Ball-Hennings, writer
1884: Noah Beery, U.S. actor, Mark of Zorro, Sea Wolf
1881: Alfred R Radcliffe-Browne, British anthropologist, Andaman Islanders
1880: Mack Sennett, movie creator, Keystone Kops
1878: Oscar Apfel, Cleveland, actor, Abraham Lincoln, Inspiration, Before Dawn
1877: Hans Jelmoli, composer
1876: Olga Fastrova, writer
1873: Francois Rasse, composer
1864: Lucien Herr, France, scientist, Corresp entre Schiller et Schiller
1863: Konstantin S Stanislavski, Russia, director, Stanislavski Method
1863: David Lloyd George, L-PM-Britain, 1916-22
1863: Henry Charles Tonking, composer
1862: John E Akkeringa, Dutch painter/etcher
1858: Tomas Carrasquilla, Colombian author, Frutos de mi Tierra
1857: Wilhelm Kienzl, Austrian composer, Evangelimann
1857: Eugene Augustin Lauste, developer, 1st sound-on-film recording
1853: Alva Vanderbilt Beaumont, women's rights advocate and activist
1850: Alexander Sergeyevich Taneyev, St. Petersburg Russia, composer
1845: Lucas Lindeboom, Dutch vicar/evangelist, Vredebond
1842: Anton G van Hamel, founder, Roman Philology in Netherlands
1840: Paul Meyer, French Writer
1836: Jose Silvestre de los Dolores White Lafitte, composer
1835: Antanas Baranauskas, Lithuanian bishop/poet/dialectologist
1835: Johan Filip von Schantz, composer
1834: Wilhelmina J R Albregt-Engelman, Dutch actress/daughter of Mimi Bia
1829: Catherine Booth, American Activist
1828: Lewis Addison Grant, Major General Union volunteers
1820: Anne Bronte, English novelist/poet, Tenant of Wildfell Hall
1818: Antoine Dorion, L, joint premier of Canada, 1858, 1863-64
1814: Ellen Wood, English author, East Lynne, Pomeroy Abbey
1806: James Madison Randolph, Jefferson's grandson, 1st born in White House
1800: Caleb Cushing, American Diplomat
1771: Charles Brockden Brown, father of American novel, Wieland
1769: Ole Andreas Lindeman, composer
1761: James Hall, Scotland, geologist
1759: Paul Cuffe, Massachusetts, merchant/shipbuilder/black nationalist
1745: Nicolas Roze, composer
1734: Francois-Joseph Gossec, Belgian-French composer, Les Pacheurs, Mirza
1733: Thomas Linley, composer
1732: Stanislaw II August Poniatowski, last king of Poland, 1764-95
1728: Johann Gottfried Muthel, composer
1719: Jean-Joseph Vade, composer
1712: John Stanley, composer
1706: Benjamin Franklin, Boston, kite flyer, statesman, and inventor
1683: Gerard van Loon, Dutch historian
1659: Antonio Veracini, composer
1657: Pieter van Bloemen, Standaart, Flemish painter, baptized
1612: Thomas Fairfax, Lord Fairfax, English Parliamentary general
1600: Pedro Calderon de la Barca, born in Madrid, Spain, writer, dramatist, Spanish Golden Age, works include, 'La vida es sueno', or, 'Life is a Dream'
1574: Robert Fludd, composer
1545: Antonio Pace, composer
1517: Antonio Scandello, Italian composer, Passion of Johannes
1504: Pius V, Antonio Ghislieri saint, pope, 1566 - 1772
1501: Leonhard Fuchs, Germany, botanist, History of Plants
1463: Frederick III, the Wise, elector of Saxony, 1486-25, protector Luther
1342: Philip, the Bold, duke of Burgundy


Today in History

2011: In Vietnam, 1,400 members of the ruling Communist Party of Vietnam gather to vote for new leaders
2011: All bullet trains in northern and central Japan were temporarily halted due a computer glitch; thousands of passengers are affected
2010: Ali Hassan al-Majid, former Iraqi minister, also known as Chemical Ali, is sentenced to death for the poison gas attack at Halabja
2009: Israel declares a unilateral ceasefire in the Gaza War, effective January 18, as Hamas declares a ceasefire of its own
1998: President Clinton faces sexual harrament charges from Paula Jones
1997: NBA suspends Dennis Rodman indefinitely/$25,000 for kicking cameraman
1995: Los Angeles Rams announce that they are moving to St. Louis
1995: 7.2 earthquake destroys Kobe Japan killing 5,372 die
1995: "Carousel" closes at Beaumont Theater New York City after 322 performances
1995: Australia beat Australia A 2-0 to win the World Series Cup
1994: Liz Taylor released from the hospital after hip treatment
1994: 6.6 Earthquake hits Los Angeles killing 60, $30B in damage
1993: 14th ACE Cable Awards: HBO wins 32 awards
1993: Russian Irina Privalova cycles world record 300m indoor (35.45")
1992: Sarah Ferguson attends dinner of Everglades club (club excludes Jews)
1991: Operation Desert Storm begins - U.S. led allies vs Iraq
1991: Iraq fires 8 Scud missiles on Israel
1991: Mountie Jacques Rougeau beats Hart for WWF intercontinental title
1991: Operation Desert Storm: 1st U.S. pilot shot down (Jeffrey Zahn)
1990: Dave Stewart signs record $3,500,000 per year Oak A's contract
1990: Kinks inducted into Cleveland's Rock and Roll Hall of Fame
1990: Who, Simon and Garfunkel, 4 Seasons, 4 Tops, Hank Ballard, Platters &
1990: 5th Rock and Roll Hall of Fame Awards: Bobby Darin
1989: Murden and Metz are 1st women to reach South Pole overland (on skis)
1989: Gunman opens fire in California schoolyard; 5 students slain, 30 wounded
1989: Phoenix Suns cancel game at Miami Heat, due to racial unrest in Miami
1989: Al Arbour wins his 600th NHL game as coach
1988: "Teddy and Alice" closes at Minskoff Theater New York City after 77 performances
1988: Leslie Manigay elected president of Haiti
1987: President Reagan signs secret order permitting covert sale of arms to Iran
1986: Tim Witherspoon beats Tony Tubbs in 15 for heavyweight boxing title
1985: Azharuddin scores second Test century in second Test (v England)
1984: Supreme Court rules (5-4) oks private use of home VCRs to tape TV programs for later viewing does not violate federal copyright laws
1983: Nigeria expels 2 million illegal aliens, mostly Ghanaians
1983: 10th American Music Award: Kenny Rogers
1983: Alabama Governor George C. Wallace, becomes governor for record 4th time
1981: Philippino president Marcos ends state of siege
1980: NASA launches Fltsatcom-3
1979: Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi flees Iran
1979: U.S.S.R. performs underground nuclear test
1979: New York Islanders didn't get a shot off in 1 period against New York Rangers
1977: KC releases Tommy Davis, ends an 18-year career with 10 teams
1977: NFL Pro Bowl: AFC beats NFC 24-14
1977: Zaire president Mobutu visits Belgium
1976: "I Write the Songs" by Barry Manilow hits #1
1976: Hermes rocket launched by European Space Agency
1974: Styne, Comdem and Green's musical "Lorelei," premieres in New York City
1973: City of Amsterdam decides to support Hanoi
1973: New Philippine constitution names Marcos president for life
1972: Section of Memphis' Highway 51 South renamed Elvis Presley Blvd
1971: Super Bowl V: Baltimore Colts-16, Dallas Cowboys-13 in Miami Superbowl MVP: Chuck Howley, Dallas, LB
1970: John M Burgess installed as bishop of Protestant Episcopals (Mass)
1970: AFL Pro Bowl: West beats East 26-3
1970: Sporting News names Willie Mays as Player of the Decade for the 1960s
1970: 357 baseball players are available in the free-agent draft
1969: Beatles release Yellow Submarine album in UK
1969: Debut album of Led Zeppelin released in US
1969: Soyuz 5 lands
1968: Soyuz 4 and 5 completed 1st docking of 2 manned spacecraft
1966: B-52/KC-135 tankers crash near Spanish coast at Palomares, 7 die
1966: Martin Luther King, Jr. opens campaign in Chicago
1963: Wilt Chamberlain of NBA San Francisco Warriors scores 67 points vs Los Angeles
1963: Joe Walker takes X-15 to altitude of 82 km
1962: A NASA civilian pilot Neil Armstrong takes X-15 to 40,690 m
1962: Roy Harris' 8th Symphony, premieres in SF
1961: Eisenhower allegedly orders assassination of Congo's Lumumba
1960: Mickey Wright wins LPGA Sea Island Women's Golf Invitational
1960: NFL Pro Bowl: West beats East 38-21
1959: "Say, Darling" closes at ANTA Theater New York City after 332 performances
1957: Cavern Club opens (home of Beatles' 1st appearance)
1957: 9-county commission recommends creation of BART
1955: Submarine Nautilus begins 1st nuclear-powered test voyage
1954: Jacques Cousteau's 1st network telecast airs on "Omnibus" (CBS)
1954: Suggs Louise wins LPGA Sea Island Golf Open (Cloister)
1954: NFL Pro Bowl: East beats West 20-9
1951: China refuses cease-fire in Korea
1950: "Alive and Kicking" opens at Winter Garden Theater New York City for 46 performances
1950: 11 men rob Brink's office in Boston of $1.2M cash and $1.5M securities
1948: Trial of 11 U.S. Communist party members begins in New York City
1948: Netherlands and Indonesia agree to a cease fire
1947: Muiden Netherlands ammunition factory explodes, 16 die
1946: United Nations Security Council holds its 1st meeting
1945: Gilbert Dodds, record miler (4:05.3), retires to do gospel work
1945: Auschwitz concentration camp begins evacuation
1945: Liberation of Warsaw by Soviet troops (end of Nazi occupation)
1945: Swedish diplomat Raoul Wallenberg, credited with saving tens of thousands of Jews from the Nazis, arrested by secret police in Hungary
1944: Korvet Violet sinks U-641 in Atlantic Ocean
1943: Tin Can Drive Day
1939: Ed Barrow is elected Yankee president succeeding deceased J Ruppert
1938: Supreme Soviet elects Michail Kalinin as presidium chairman
1934: Carl Hubbell, NL MVP winner, gets $18,000 contract by the New York Giants
1934: New York Giants reward MVP pitcher Carl Hubbell with $18,000 contract
1934: Electric Home and Farm Authority incorporated
1933: Bradman takes second Test wicket, Hammond, bowled
1929: Popeye makes 1st appearance, in comic strip "Thimble Theater"
1928: 1st fully automatic photographic film developing machine patented
1926: George Burns marries Gracie Allen
1923: Belgian Working people Party protest against occupied Ruhrgebied
1923: Origin of Brown lunation numbers
1920: Paul Deschanel elected president of France
1917: U.S. pays Denmark $25 million for Virgin Islands
1916: 1st PGA Championship: Jim Barnes at Siwanoy CC Bronxville NY
1916: Professional Golfer Association (PGA) forms in New York City
1915: Antoni van Leeuwenhoek's Hospital in Amsterdam opens
1915: Russia occupies Bukovina and Western Ukraine
1914: Gerhart Hauptmann's "Der Bogen des Odysseus," premieres in Berlin
1913: Raymond Poincare elected president of France
1912: Robert Scott expedition arrives at South Pole, 1 month after Amundsen
1911: Percy Mackaye's "Scarecrow," premieres in New York City
1911: Failed assassination attempt on premier Briand in French Assembly
1905: Punchboards patented by Charles Brewer and C G Scannell, Chicago
1904: Anton Chekhov's "Cherry Orchard" opens at Moscow Art Theater
1899: U.S. takes possession of Wake Island in Pacific
1895: French president Casimir-Perier resigns
1895: Felix Faure installed as president of France
1893: Queen Liliuokalani deposed, Kingdom of Hawaii becomes a republic
1893: -17 degrees F (-27 degrees C), Millsboro, Delaware (state record)
1885: British beat Mahdists at Battle of Abu Klea in Sudan
1882: 1st Dutch female physician Aletta Jacobs opens office
1874: Armed Democrats seize Texas government ending Radical Reconstruction
1871: 1st cable car patented, by Andrew S Hallidie (begins service in 1873)
1864: General Longstreet's command ends heavy fighting at Dandridgem TN
1863: Civil War skirmish near Newtown, Virginia
1862: BBT Ft. Henry, Tennessee by USS Lexington
1861: Flush toilet patented by Mr. Thomas Crapper (Honest!)
1852: British recognize independence of Transvaal (in South Africa)
1832: Johannes van den Bosch appointed Governor-General of Dutch-Indies
1827: Duke of Wellington appointed British supreme commander
1821: Mexico permits Moses Austin and 300 U.S. families to settle in Texas
1779: Captain Cooks last notation in ship's log Discovery
1775: R B Sheridan's "Rivals," premieres in London
1775: 9 old women burnt as witches for causing bad harvests, Kalisk, Pol
1773: Captain James Cook becomes 1st to cross Antarctic Circle (66 degrees 33' S)
1757: German Diet declares war on Prussia
1746: Battle of Falkirk, Scotland-Edward I defeats and massacres Scots
1718: Avalanche destroys every building in Leukerbad, Switzerland; kills 53
1656: Brandenburg and Sweden sign Treaty of Konigsberg
1601: France gains Bresse, Bugey, Valromey and Gex in treaty with Spain
1595: French king Henri IV declares war on Spain
1584: Bohemia adopts Gregorian calendar
1562: Edict of St. Germain recognizes Huguenots in France
1536: Francois Rabelais absolved of apostasy by Pope Paul III
1501: Cesare Borgia returns in triumph to Rome from Romagna