...Because someone's gotta tell the story...


Today's Birthdays

1976: Ed Jovanoski, born in Windsor, Ontario, NHL defenseman for the Florida Panthers
1976: Mpumelo Mbangwa, cricketer, Zimbabwe pace bowler vs. Pakistan 1996
1975: Umeki Webb, WNBA guard and forward, Phoenix Mercury
1974: Dieter Kalt, hockey forward, Team Austria 1998
1974: Jason Kendall, born in San Diego, California, catcher for the Pittsburgh Pirates
1974: Derek Jeter, born in Pequanock, New Jersey, shortstop, New York Yankees, Rookie of Year 1996
1973: Gretchen Wilson, American Musician
1973: Mischa Smoking, soccer player, Dordrecht '90
1973: Reggie Brown, NFL fullback for the Seattle Seahawks
1973: Aaron Jackson, born in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, actor, Mark Winkle-California Dreams
1972: Jai Taurima, Australian long jumper 1996 Olympics
1972: Jerris McPhail, running back for the Miami Dolphins
1971: Eddie Parenti, born in Montreal, Quebec, 100m butterfly swimmer 1996 Olympics
1971: Carlton Gray, NFL cornerback, Seattle Seahawks, Indianapolis Colts
1970: Nicole Richardson, Australian softball outfielder 1996 Olympics bronze
1970: Chris O'Donnell, actor, School Ties, Robin-Batman Forever
1970: Sean Hayes, American Actor
1970: Paul Thomas Anderson, American Director
1969: Barry Kloeth, WLAF wide receiver for the Amsterdam Admirals
1969: Colin Greenwood, British Musician
1969: Harry Boatswain, NFL tackle for the Philadelphia Eagles
1969: Troy Auzenne, NFL tackle for the Chicago Bears
1969: Michael Myers, born in Illinois, pitcher for the Detroit Tigers
1968: Shannon Sharpe, NFL tight end, Denver Broncos Superbowl 32
1967: Travis Fine, born in Atlanta, Georgia, actor, Ike McSwain-Young Riders
1966: Kirk McLean, born in Toronto, NHL goalie, Vancouver Canucks
1966: Paul Mokha, born in Erie, Pennsylvania, rower 1996 Olympics
1964: Alison Wyeth, Isle West Middlesex England, 1.5k/5k runner
1964: Zeng Jinlian, born in Hunan, China, became tallest woman known, 2.46 m, 8'1"
1964: Pamela Wright, born in Scotland, LPGA golfer, 1995 Jamie Farr Toledo-3rd
1963: Devin Renee De Vasquez, born in Baton Rouge, Louisiana, playmate, June, 1985, actress
1963: Mikhail Khodorkovsky, Russian Businessman
1963: Harriet Wheeler, English pop singer/composer, The Sundays
1963: Wendy Lucero-Schayes, born in Denver, Colorado, U.S. diver 1992 Olympics
1962: Jerome Kersey, NBA forward, Golden State Warriors, Sea Supersonics
1962: George P N earl of St. Andrews, under English prince Edward
1961: Greg LeMond, U.S. bicyclist, Tour de France winner-1986, 1989, 1990
1960: Barbara Edwards, born in Albuqueque, New Mexico, playmate of year, Sept, 1983, actress
1960: Jumpy Geathers, NFL defensive end, Denver Broncos Superbowl 32
1959: Mark McKinney, Canadian Comedian
1958: Glen Stewart Godwin, born in Miami, Florida, murderer, FBI Most Wanted
1957: Patty Smyth, New York City, rock vocalist, Scandal-Warrior
1956: Azhar Cachalia, Scottish/South Africa leader, United Democratic Front
1956: Bernard A. Harris, Jr., born in Temple Texas, MD/Astronaut, STS-55, 63
1956: Chris Isaak, born in Stockton, California, rock singer and songwriter, Wicked Game
1956: Robert Davi, actor, License to Kill, Raw Deal, Wild Thing
1954: Robert Davi, born in Astoria, New York, opera singer and actor, Gangster Chronicles
1953: Ralph Ezell, born in Unio,n Mississippi, singer, Shenandoah-Sunday in the South
1952: Gordon McQueen, born in Kilbirnie, Scotland, footballer, soccer player, central defender, coach, played for Manchester United and Leeds, led team to win FA Cup Final, 1979, coached Airdrieonians, manager for Middleborough, pundit for Sky Sports
1951: Rindy Ross, born in Portland, Oregon, rock vocalist/saxophonist, Quarterflash
1951: Pamela Bellwood, born in New York City, actress, Ellen-W.E.B., Claudia-Dynasty
1951: Gary Gilmour, cricketer, exciting Aussie all-rounder 1973-77
1948: Allen Michael Doyle, born in Woonsocket, Rhode Island, PGA golfer, 1991 Memorial-64th
1946: Clive Francis, born in London, England, actor, Masada
1945: Barry Schrader, born in Johnstown, Pennsylvania, composer, electro-acoustic genre, wrote, 'Introducton to Electro-Acoustic Music'
1945: David Heyn, cricketer, Sri Lankan batsman 1975 World Cup
1944: Ruth Kempson, linguist, SOAS
1943: John Allen Strang, composer
1943: Georgie Fame, rock vocalist, Get Away, Ballad of Bonnie and Clyde
1943: Jean Knight, U.S. singer, Mr Big Stuff
1942: Larry Taylor, born in Brooklyn, rocker, Canned Heat-On the Road Again
1940: Vittorio Storaro, cinematographer, Taxi, Little Buddah, Dick Tracy
1940: Robert Kramer, actor, A.K.
1940: Billy Davis, Jr., born in St. Louis, Missouri, singer, 5th Dimension-One Less Bell
1939: Chuck Robb, born in Phoenix, Arizona, Senator-D-Virginia 1989 - 2001
1939: Chuck Robb, American Politician
1939: Ansar Ilgamovich Sharafutdinov, Russian cosmonaut
1939: Smangaliso P Mkhatshwa, born in South Africa, Secretary-General, Bishops' Conference 1983-88
1938: Neil Abercrombie, born in Buffalo, New York, Representative-D-Hawaii, 1986 - 1987, 1991 -
1937: Peter Pike, born in England, born Peter Leslie Pike, politician, Labor Party, Member of Parliament for Burnley
1937: Henk van der Meyden, Dutch journalist, de Telegraaf/Prive
1936: Robert Maclennan, British MP
1935: Pete Peterson, born in Omaha, Nebraska, Representative-D-Florida 1991 - 1997
1934: Luis Felipe Pires, composer
1934: John V. Tunney, born in New York City, New York, heavyweight boxing champion, Representative-D-California 1965-1971 and Senator-D-California 1971 - 1977
1934: Josef Sommer, born in Germany, actor, Witness, Target, Iceman, Forced March
1933: Claudio Abbado, Milan Italy, composer and conductor, London Symph-1982
1933: David Winnick, British MP
1933: Pat Morita, born in California, actor, Arnold-Happy Days, Karate Kid
1932: Henry Bromfield, cricketer, South Africa off-spinner in 9 Tests 1961-65
1931: Colin Wilson, author, Afterlife, Book of Great Mysteries
1931: Alan Bailey, British sect, Department of transport
1931: Lucien Goethals, composer
1930: Willem G Statius Muller, Netherlands Antilles, conductor/pianist/composer
1929: Alexander Fenton, CEO, Euro Ethnological Research Center in Edinburgh
1929: Francesco Cossiga, president of Italy, 1985-
1929: Milton Glaser, American Designer
1929: Ian Prestt, English ornithologist
1928: Jacob Druckman, born in Philadelphia, composer, Animus I Auerole
1927: Leslie Carpenter, CEO, Reed International
1925: Pavel Ivanovich Belyayev, U.S.S.R., cosmonaut, Voskhod II
1924: Syd Lawrence, bandleader, Syd Lawrence Orchestra
1924: Peter Miles, British keeper of privy purse
1923: David Haslam, British rear Admiral, hydrographer
1922: Campbell Adamson, CEO, Abbey National Pictures
1922: Frances Rafferty, born in Sioux City, Iowa, actress, December Bride
1922: Alan Peacock, economist
1922: Eleanor Parker, born in Ohio, actress, Caged, Detective Story, Hans Brinker
1921: Abe Jan Koldijk, SS-physician, Limburg's family doctor
1920: Michael Eastham, high court judge
1919: Jay Silverheels, actor, Tonto-Lone Ranger
1919: Lord Rawlinson, British attorney general, Ewell
1917: William Hamilton, British MP
1916: Paul Derrick, co-operator/Christian socialist
1916: Alex Dreier, born in Honolulu, Hawaii, newscaster, Whats it all about World?
1916: Virginia Satir, American Psychologist
1914: Richard Maltby, orchestra leader, Vaughn Monroe Show
1914: Laurie Lee, male poet and author, I Can't Stay Long
1914: John J "John" Beautiful Garden, sculptor
1914: Wolfgang Windgassen, born in Annemasse, Germany, tenor, Stuttgart Opera
1913: Babe [Mildred Ella] Didrikson, born in Port Arthur, Texas, hurdler, Gold Medal 1932 Olympics
1913: Maurice Wilkes, inventor, stored program concept for computers
1911: Edward Levi, professor, Intro to Legal Reasoning
1910: Charles Spry, Australian security chief
1909: "Col Tom" Parker, Dries Van Kruijk, born in Netherlands, rock manager, Elvis Presley
1909: Nicholas Polunin, environmentalist
1906: Stefan Andres, born in Germany, post-World War II writer, novelist
1905: Jan Louis Guillaume "Yvan" Doornik, Netherlands resistance fighter in France
1905: Jack Longland, British director of education, Derbyshire
1904: Peter Lorre, Hungarian American, actor, M, Casablanca, Beast with 5 Fingers
1903: Ashley Clarke, president, Venice in Peril Fund
1903: Floyd "Babe" Herman, Brooklyn Dodgers' slugger, .324 lifetime average
1902: Antonia Brico, born in Rotterdam, Holland, conductor/pianist, Antonia
1902: William Lear, engineer/manufacturer/CEO, Lear Jet Corp
1901: William Busch, composer
1901: Stuart Symington, born in Amherst, Massachusetts, Senator-D-Missouri 1953 - 1976
1900: Joseph E A "Jo" Spier, Dutch cartoonist/water color painter
1898: Willy Messerschmitt, German aircraft designer
1897: Viola Dana, born in Brooklyn, actress, Willow Tree, 40 Winks, Silent Lover
1895: Jankel Adler, Polish painter
1894: Jeanne Eagels, actress, Rain, Under False Colors
1894: Bill Wirges, born in Buffalo, New York, orchestra leader, Growing Paynes
1893: "Big Bill" Broonzy, born in Mississippi, blues singer/guitarist, Blues by Broonzy
1892: Pearl Sydenstricker Buck, born in China, author, Good Earth-Nobel 1938
1891: Sidney Coe Howard, U.S., dramatist, Swords, Pulitzer 1925
1891: Heinrich Lemacher, composer
1891: Vladislav Vancura, Czechoslovakian physician, stage, author and resistance fighter
1887: Anthony G de Rothschild, Britain, philanthropist
1886: Margaretha C E "Greta" Beekman, actress, Wrong Poes
1885: Andre Maurois, French writer, Balzac
1885: Billy Jenkins, Erich Rosenthal, Magdeburg
1878: Albert Siklos, composer
1878: Ernest Torrence, born in Edinburgh, Scotland, actor, Hunchback of Notre Dame
1876: Nico[laas P] de Jong, Dutch radio play actor, Laughter and Tears
1875: Camille Zeckwer, composer
1874: Albert Relf, cricketer, England all-rounder in 13 Tests 1903-14
1874: Mikhail Vladimirovich Ivanov-Boretsky, composer
1869: Martin Anderson Nexo, Danish poet and writer, Tabte Generation
1866: Josef Swickard, born in Coblenz, Germany, actor, Lost City, Tale of 2 Cities
1865: George C Pearce, actor, Country Kid, British Agent, Valiant
1865: Bernard Berenson, art critic, Italian Painters of the Renaissance
1865: Charles E Bonin, French explorer/diplomat, China
1854: Robert Laird Borden, C, 8th Canadian PM, 1911-20
1837: Martin Davis Hardin II, Brigadier General Union volunteers
1837: Victor Jean Baptiste Girardey, Brigadier General Confederate Army
1831: Julius Rodenberg, Levy, German writer, Kriegs-Songs of War and Peace
1824: Moritz Furstenau, composer
1824: Kelvin, William Thomson, British physicist, Kelvin Scale
1823: Frederick Bowen Jewson, composer
1821: Bartolome Mitre, Argentine general
1763: George Morland, England, artist of rural landscapes
1760: Johan I Jozef, monarch of Liechtenstein/Field Marshal
1749: Louis Joseph Claude Saint-Amans, composer
1747: Leopold Jan Antonin Kozeluh, composer
1742: Arthur Middleton, signer, Declaration of Independence
1741: John Langdon, American Politician
1730: Charles Joseph Messier, astronomer, cataloguer of "M objects"
1702: Philip Doddridge, England, Dr/nonconformist clergyman
1655: Jean Deutz, merchant/Amsterdam regent
1582: Johannes Schultz, composer


Today in History

2011: The ash cloud from the 2011 Puyehue-Cordon Caulle eruption closes 39 flights in Chile and Argentina
2011: The E.coli strain that caused 46 deaths in Germany reportedly resurfaced in france, with eight people hospitalized in Bordeaux
2010: Leaders of the twenty largest economies meet for the 2010 G-20 Summit in Toronto, Canada
1997: Supreme Court upholds doctor-assisted suicide ban
1997: Supreme Court strikes down Internet indecency law
1997: Galileo, Ganymede Observations, Orbit 9
1995: Gunmen ambush Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak, escapes unharmed
1994: Kirby Puckett pass Rod Carew with 2,088 hit as Twin's top hit leader
1994: 126 degrees F (52.2 degrees C) in Death Valley California
1994: 112 degrees F (44.4 degrees C) at El Paso Texas
1994: 104 degrees F (40 degrees C) at Denver Colorado
1994: Donna Andrews wins ShopRite LPGA Golf Classic
1994: "Medea" closes at Longacre Theater New York City after 82 performances
1994: 122 degrees F (50 degrees C) at Laughlin Nevada
1994: PLO-leader Yasser Arafat returns to Gaza after 27 years
1994: 107 degrees F (41.6 degrees C) at Albuquerque New Mexico
1994: U.S. loses to Romania 1-0 in 1994 soccer world cup
1994: Air Ivory Fokker's-27 crashes at Abidjan (16 killed/1 lives)
1994: "Broken Glass" closes at Booth Theater New York City after 73 performances
1994: Actor Brandon Cruz (32) weds Elizabeth Finkelstein (26)
1993: Actress Julia Roberts and country singer Lyle Lovett wed
1993: "Late Night with David Letterman" airs for last time on NBC-TV
1993: New York Met Eddie Murray is 20th to get 1,600 RBIs
1993: Clinton orders cruise missle strike on Iraqi secret service in Baghdad
1993: Rebecca Jones, of Georgia, 18, crowned America's Junior Miss
1992: India leases Tin Bigha corridor to Bangladesh
1992: New York City's Metropolitan Transportation Authority votes to ban cigarette ads on Jan 1, 1993
1992: Supreme Court rules fund soliciting can be banned at airports
1991: Charlotte Hornets make Larry Johnson of UNLV, NBA's #1 draft pick
1991: "Getting Married" opens at Circle in Sq Theater New York City for 70 performances
1991: Amy Elizabeth Goodman, of California, crowned America's Junior Miss
1991: ANC leader Nelson Mandela addresses congress
1990: 122 degrees F in Phoenix, Arizona
1990: 8 KS and OK radio stations boycott k d lang, due to her anti-meat ad
1990: New Kid on the Block Donnie Wahlberg release from hospital after fall
1989: Canada updates coins with a new potrait of the Queen
1989: Melanie Griffith and Don Johnson marry for 2nd time
1988: Kathy Postlewait wins LPGA McDonald's Golf Championship
1987: Losing 9-0 to Red Sox, Yankees score 11 in 3rd and win 12-11 in 10 inn
1987: Supreme Court Justice Lewis F. Powell, Jr. announces his retirement
1986: South African journalist Zwelakhe Sisulu arrested
1984: 1st flight of Shuttle Discovery (41-D) scrubbed at T -4
1984: Barbra Streisand records "Here We Are at Last"
1983: "Show Boat" closes at Uris Theater New York City after 73 performances
1983: Ayako Okamoto wins LPGA Rochester Golf International
1982: Carlos Lopes runs Europe record 10k (27:34.39)
1982: U.S. vetos United Nations Security Council resolution for a limited withdrawal from Beirut of Israeli and Palestine Liberation Organization forces
1982: Marie Osmond marries Steve Craig
1981: "For Your Eyes Only" premieres in U.S.
1979: Rocker Nigel Olsson runs a stop sign, crashes and kills a driver
1979: Heavyweight Muhammad Ali confirms that his 3rd retirement is final
1978: First dedicated oceanographic satellite, SEASAT 1, launched
1978: Brittany separatists bomb Palace of Versailles in France
1977: Debbie Austin wins LPGA Hoosier Golf Classic
1977: 42 die in fire inmate causes at Maury County Jail in Columbia, Tennessee
1977: Elvis Presley sings in Indianapolis, last performance of his career
1976: WS shortstop Toby Harrah plays DH without touching a batted ball
1975: Indian Prime Minister Indira Gandhi declares a state of emergency
1975: Cher divorces Sonny Bono
1974: Liz Taylor's 5th divorce (Richard Burton)
1973: London production of "Grease" premieres
1972: IRA proclaims resistant in North-Ireland
1972: Bob Massie takes 16 wickets (8-84 and 8-53) on Test cricket debut vs. Eng
1971: "Man of La Mancha" closes at ANTA Washington Square Theater New York City after 2329 performances
1971: Angels suspend Alex Johnson (after 5 benchings and 29 fines)
1970: Frank Robinson hits 2 grand slams as Orioles beat Senators 12-2
1968: Iwo Jima and Bonin Islands returned to Japan by US
1968: Executive Council decides both AL and NL to divide into 2 divisions
1967: Pope Paul VI names 27 new cardinals
1966: "Time for Singing" closes at Broadway Theater New York City after 41 performances
1966: Carol Mann wins LPGA Waterloo Women's Golf Open Invitational
1966: Kanton Bazel leads female suffrage in Switzerland
1965: Wallon party forms in Belgium
1964: Blacks and Whites riot over racial segregation in St. Augustine
1964: Moise Tsjombe forms government in Congo
1964: Beatles release "A Hard Day's Night" album
1963: Dutch 2nd Chamber condemns commercial TV
1963: Kennedy visits W Berlin "Ich bin ein Berliner" (I am a Berliner)
1963: Alfons Gorbach forms Austrian government
1962: WSEC (now WLRN) TV channel 17 in Miami, Florida (PBS) begins broadcasting
1962: Blacks begin passive resistance in Cairo Ill
1962: Boston Red Sox Earl Wilson no-hits LA Angels, 2-0
1960: Hall of Fame allows veteran committee to vote annually
1960: Madagascar (formerly Malagasy Rep) declares independence from France
1960: Italian Somaliland declares independence from Italian-administration
1960: British Somaliland (now Somalia) gains independence from Britain
1959: Queen Elizabeth and President Eisenhower open St. Lawrence Seaway
1959: Ingemar Johansson TKOs Floyd Patterson in 3 for heavywgt boxing title
1958: Gaston Eyskens becomes premier of Belgium
1958: Vanguard SLV-2 launched for Earth orbit (failed)
1958: Mackinac Straits Bridge, Michigan dedicated
1955: Patty Berg wins LPGA Western Golf Open
1955: Freedom Charter signed in South Africa
1955: Actor Geoffrey Holder marries Carmen de Lavallade
1954: Jim Peters runs marathon in 2:17:39.4
1953: Russian vice-premier/interior minister Beria arrested
1953: KCTV (now KLST) TV channel 8 in San Angelo, Texas (CBS) 1st broadcast
1952: Nelson Mandela and 51 others infringe South Africa curfew
1952: Dutch social democratic party wins elections (29%)
1950: President Gottwald of Czechoslovakia confirms Milada Horakova's death sentence
1949: 1st Belgian parliamentary election where women can vote (CVP gains)
1948: U.S. denounces Soviet blockade of Berlin
1946: Dutch Nazi collaborator Arnold Meijer sentenced to 5 years
1946: Fred Allen's last radio show, his guest is Jack Benny
1945: England win the second Victory test cricket at Bramall Lane by 41 runs
1945: U.N. Charter signed by 50 nations in SF
1944: Yankees, Dodgers and Giants play unique 6 inn game for War Bonds, each playing successive innings, final score Dodgers-5, Yankees-1 and Giants-0
1944: 2nd British army reaches Grainville-Mouen line
1942: German assault on British at Mersa Matruh
1941: Lithuanian fascist massacre 2,300 Jews in Kovno
1941: Finland enters WW II against Russia
1940: End of U.S.S.R. experimental calendar; Gregorian readopted 6/27
1938: Cincinnati Red Lonny Frey hits 8 doubles in a doubleheader
1937: Test cricket debut of Len Hutton vs. New Zealand at Lord's, scores 0 and 1
1936: Everett Marshall beats Ali Baba in Columbus, to become wrestling champ
1936: 1st flight of Fw61 helicopter
1935: Work service for recent graduate obligatory in Germany
1935: SDAP and CPH achieve majority in city council in Amsterdam
1935: Lloyd Waner sets record of 18 putouts in center in doubleheader
1935: Andrew Sandham's 100th FC hundred, 103 vs. Hants
1934: W. E. B. Du Bois resigns position at NAACP
1934: Franklin D. Roosevelt signs Federal Credit Union Act, establishing Credit Unions
1934: Germany and Poland sign no-attack treaty
1929: ENKA/Vereinigte Glanzstoff Factory merge AKU (Genl Kunstzijde Union)
1927: Comet 7P/Pons-Winnecke approaches within 0.0394 AUs of Earth
1924: Ziegfeld Follies opens on Broadway
1924: After 8 years of occupation, U.S. troops leave Dominican Republic
1919: N.Y. Daily News begins publishing
1917: 1st U.S. Expeditionary Force arrive in France during WW I
1916: Cleveland Indians experiment with #s on their jerseys (one game)
1915: Germany suppresses its "Vorwarts" newspaper after it called for peace
1912: Gustav Mahlers 9th Symphony premieres in Vienna
1911: Nieuport sets an aircraft speed record of 83 mph, 133 kph
1910: 1st federal corrupt election practices law passed
1910: Hazel Hotchkiss wins U.S. Lawn Tennis Association championship
1910: 24th U.S. Womens Tennis: H Hotchkiss Wightman beats L Hammond (64 62)
1909: Victoria and Albert Museum opens in London
1909: 23rd U.S. Womens Tennis: H Hotchkiss beats Maud Barger-Wallach (60 61)
1907: Bolsheviks overthrows transport in Tiflis
1906: Hongar Szisz wins 1st Grand-Prix (Le Mans, France)
1902: Order of Merit instituted by King Edward VII
1902: Start of Sherlock Holmes "Adventure of 3 Garidebs"
1900: Dr. Walter Reed begins research that beats Yellow Fever
1896: 1st movie theater in U.S. opens, charging 10 cents for admission
1894: Karl Benz of Germany receives U.S. patent for gasoline-driven auto
1879: Ismael Pasha resigns as khedive of Egypt
1870: Wagner's opera "Valkyrie" premieres in Munich
1870: 1st section of Atlantic City Boardwalk opens
1862: Battle of Beaver Dam Creek-Union repulses Confederacy in Virginia
1862: Day 2 of 7 Days-Battle of Mechanicsville Virginia (Meadow Bridge)
1862: U.S. Army of Virginia established under General John Pope
1857: Cawnpore England massacre
1857: 62 receive Victoria Cross
1848: 1st pure food law enacted in U.S.
1844: U.S. President John Tyler marries Julia Gardiner in New York City
1843: Hong Kong proclaimed a British Crown Colony
1807: Lightning hits gunpowder warehouse in Luxembourg; 230 die
1797: Charles Newbold patents 1st cast-iron plow. He can't sell it to farmers, though, they fear effects of iron on soil!
1794: Battle of Colors: France under Jourdan beats Austrian army
1721: Dr. Zabdiel Boylston gives 1st smallpox inoculations in America
1714: Spain and Netherlands sign peace/trade agreement
1630: Swedish troops under Gustaf II Adolf lands at Peenemunde
1553: Christ's Hospital in England granted a charter
1498: Toothbrush invented
1483: Duke of Gloucester appoints himself English king Richard III
1483: Richard III usurps English throne
1409: Council of Pisa selects Petros Philargi as 3rd Pope: Alexander V
1284: Pied Piper lures 130 children of Hamelin away (actually happened)
684: St. Benedict II begins his reign as Catholic Pope